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Frequently Asked Questions

  • Q:  What are the differences between phosphorescent materials, fluorescent materials and reflective materials?
    Phospho-rescent materials Quality The materials become self-luminous to glow in darkness by emitting light energy accumulated in the daytime or under light.
    Feature

    Although the emission is not so strong and the visibility decreases with time, such visibility can last for a certain period of time and can work as marks.

    Fluores-cent materials Quality

    The materials look vibrantly in the areas under light by reacting to such light.

    Feature

    Although there is no visibility in darkness, the materials, whose color is vibrant and outstanding, can be effectively used for display in daytime or under light.

    Reflective materials Quality

    The materials can look shining by reflecting the light received when seeing them from the light source in darkness.

    Feature

    Light source is required to see them in darkness. However, by receiving light, the materials can be quite noticeable even from afar, and the visibility in environment where light is being used is quite good.

  • Q: Will the function be lost by ultraviolet rays?

    Materials are inorganic and semi-permanent, and are not deteriorated by ultraviolet rays, etc. No big changes were detected under the xenon arc lamp test (an accelerated weathering test) for 2,030 hours (equivalent to 5 years) in our phosphorescent sheet. However, as organic materials are mixed with them upon being produced as products, actual weather resistance will become shorter, so, when the phosphorescent sheet is  installed, the surface and the edge protection is necessary.

    * This test result was a measured value and not the guaranteed one.

  • Q: How much bright is the phosphorescent visibility?

    There are four units (total luminous flux, illuminance, light intensity, and luminosity) to measure brightness. The brightness of phosphorescent products is represented by the “Luminosity”, and the intensity of light that illuminates the products by the “Illuminance”.

    • Luminosity:Value that represents “how much a light source looks bright”. Amount of light being emitted from a measuring surface. [milli-candela(mcd/㎡)]
    • Illuminance: Brightness of a surface that is illuminated by a light source. Amount of light being irradiated to a measuring surface. [lux(lx)]

    Indication on luminosity and human visual recognition

    Luminosity

    (Unit:mcd/㎡)

    Human visual recognition in darkness

    Recognizable

    Unrecognizable

    200 or more The level you can read letters. -

    -

    5 or more You can read letters somehow. 10 people

    Nil

    3 or less You can recognize the outline of objects. 10 people

    Nil

    2 or less Becoming vague, but you can recognize the objects somehow. 10 people

    Nil

    1 or less You can hardly recognize the objects. 3 people

    7 people

    0.3 The limit that men’s eyes can recognize (*) -

    -

    *DIN67510: Deutsche Industrie Normen (Long persistence pigments and product

    Although “brightness” and “darkness” are the matter of sense and there are individual differences, it is thought that, in fact, the illuminance that you can visually confirm in total darkness is about 3mcd/m2 or more.

    Indication of Illuminance by location (Excerpt from JIS Z9110)

    Location Illuminance
    Sunny / daytime / sunlight 100,000
    Cloudy / daytime / sunlight 32,000
    Rainy / daytime / sunlight 15,000
    At the time of sunrise and sunset 300
    Candle (distance 10cm) *1 200
    Candle (distance 30cm) *1 15
    Under a streetlight of height 5m (single fluorescent lamp) *2 10
    Under moonlight at a full moon 0.24
    Under star light without moon *3 0.001

    Stadium

    3,000
    Convenience store 1,500
    Studio of television broadcast 1,000
    Brightness on a desk when you study 500-750
    Office (fluorescent lighting) 400-500
    Indoor fire escape, warehouse, living room 30-75
    Bedroom 10-30
    During break in a cinema theater 10-20
    Seats during a movie in a cinema theater 1-2

    *1 Diameter 20mm, core diameter 2.2mm, minor axis of flame size 15mm, major axis 30mm
    *2 Height of an adult face (8lx at the height of 1m, 5lx at the ground)
    *3 Equivalent to the distance of about 3 to 4m from a candle whose diameter and core diameter    are 20mm and 2mm respectively.

    The brightness of lx and cd cannot be compared relatively, but, as a matter of calculation, the brightness that is illuminated by the light source of 1,000mcd (1 candela) at a distance of 1m is set to 1 lux (Illuminance = light intensity (cd) / square of the distance).  

  • Q: How long do the phosphorescent products require to absorb light for phosphorescence?

    Afterglow luminosity of phosphorescent products becomes longer generally with higher illuminance of excitation and longer irradiation time. There, however, is saturation time correlated to irradiation time by respective illuminance, at which point the luminosity will not become higher any more even if the irradiation time is extended longer. (*)

    *The luminosity (initial and afterglow) of phosphorescent products varies depending on the difference of emitting color, particle diameter or paint film thickness of materials, etc

  • Q:  How much energy do the phosphorescent products require

    Green light-emitting phosphorescence is mainly used outdoor. The wavelength of ultraviolet rays emitted from the light source is the important factor to decide how much light energy can be absorbed.  Generally speaking, the wavelength range between 200 and 400nm in the right-hand figure is recognized as that of ultraviolet rays.

    Quote from “Mario network

    Phosphorescent materials absorb the wavelength in the range of excitation.  As drawn in the left-side figure, the wavelength range of ultraviolet rays (between 200 and 400nm) corresponds to the majority of that of excitation, and hence it has been recognized that “phosphorescent materials are emitting light by absorbing ultraviolet rays”.

    In fact, however, phosphorescent materials have absorbed the wavelength range even between 400 and 480nm, and hence it is incorrect that they are thought to be excited only by ultraviolet rays.

    Quote from “Pearls of wisdom where you can enjoy learning

    The difference of wavelength between fluorescent light and LED electric bulb is described in the figure below. It shows phosphorescent materials can also absorb the light energy from LED light source.    Phosphorescent materials, however, cannot well absorb the LED light whose range of wavelength is outside the range between 400 and 480 nm such as green LED, red LED, etc.

    * Blue light-emitting phosphorescent materials used outdoor use sunlight as the light source, which is the ideal environment to absorb light energy. (Sunlight has a wide range of wavelength from 300 to 3,000nm, of which the range between 400 and 700nm has strong intensity in particular.)

  • Q:  How long can the phosphorescent products continue emitting light?

    Our products, whose particle diameter is equalized and whose materials are refined in Japan for achieving high purity, have high-luminosity and long afterglow. (Totally in conformity with the criteria of JIS)

    Intensity of emission and afterglow time can be controlled to some extent by the contained amount of materials. (There may be also some changes due to absorbed amount of light energy, temperature, etc.)

    Blue light-emitting

    * This test result was a measured value and not guaranteed one.

    The following graph is measured based on the standards of the evacuation guidance system for tsunamis (JIS Z9097:2014).

    Green light-emitting

    * This test result was a measured value and not guaranteed one.

    The following graphs are measured based on the standards of Fire Services Act - High-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards.

  • Q: Please explain the laws and standards related to the phosphorescent evacuation guidance system.

    International standard

    DIN67510 Part1:2009

    Phosphorescent pigments and products – Measurement and identification by the manufacturer.

    .

    DIN67510 Part4:2008

    Phosphorescent pigments and products – Luminance requirements for photo luminescent materials.

    .

    JIS Z 9107

    Safety colors and Safety signs - Classification, Performance and durability of Safety signs.

    .

    BS ISO 16069:2004

    Graphical symbols. Safety signs.

    Safety way guidance systems (SWGS).

    .

    BS ISO 3864-4:2011

    Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs – Part4:Colormetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials.

    .

    BS ISO 3864-1:2011

    Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs – Part1:Design principles for safety signs and safety markings.

    .

    BS ISO 3864-3:2012

    Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs – Part3:Design principles for graphical symbols for use in safety signs.

    .

    BS EN ISO 7010:2012

    Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Registered safety signs.

    .

    BS ISO 9186-1:2014

    Graphical symbols - Test methods - Methods for testing comprehensibility.

    .

    Standards and Regulations we MEET:

    International Standard Organization (ISO)

    Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

    Deutsche Industrie Normen (DIN)

    Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)

    ASTM International (ASTM)

     

    Development of legal system in Deutsche.

    DIN67510 Part4:2008
    “Phosphorescent pigments and products – Luminance requirements for photo luminescent materials.”

    The standards that was set up based on ISO17398 with the modification from technological aspects in light of actual conditions in Japan

    Defined the performance standards related to safety signboards having a phosphorescent performance. (Revised in April 2008)

    Sub-classification

    The lowest phosphorescence luminosity

    In 2 minutes In 10 minutes In 30 minutes In 60 minutes
    A 108 23 7 3
    B 210 50 15 7
    C 690 140 45 20
    D 1100 260 85 35
    E 2200 520 170 70

    Conditions of excitation luminosity: Excitation time for 20 minutes under 200Lx irradiation.

     

    Development of legal system in Japan

    At the time of the September 11 synchronized terrorist attacks in the U.S., the subway fire in South Korea, etc., it was said that the extent of damage of such disasters expanded due to the insufficient evacuation guidance facilities.
     In light of lessons learned from such disasters, the legislation and standardization on the phosphorescent evacuation guidance system were set up since high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards become quite effective measures for promoting disaster prevention measures.

    Fire Services Act
    “Phosphorescent pigments and products – Luminance requirements for photo luminescent materials.”

    Defined high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards as a firefighting equipment based on the “Standards for guide lights and guidance signboards”. (Revised in March 2004)

    What is the “High-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards”?

    By using regular light source fluorescent lump D65 (the light of color temperature 6500k), the light is being emitted on a signboard under the environment where the illuminance is adjusted to 200lx for 20 minutes, and then is turned off. The high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboard is the board, after being treated like this, that has an average luminosity of more than 100mcd per square meter in 20 minutes after turning off the light.

    JIS Z9107-2008
    “Safety signboards – Classification of performance, performance standards and test methods”

    The standards that was set up based on ISO17398 with the modification from technological aspects in light of actual conditions in Japan  Defined the performance standards related to safety signboards having a phosphorescent performance. (Revised in April 2008)

    .

    Sub-classification

    The lowest phosphorescence luminosity

    In 2 minutes In 10 minutes In 20 minutes In 30 minutes In 60 minutes
    JA 210 50 24 15 7
    JB 440 105 50 31 15
    JC 880 210 100 62 30
    JD 1760 420 200 124 60

    Conditions of excitation luminosity: Excitation time for 20 minutes under 200Lx irradiation.

     

    Fire Services Act enforcement regulations

    Specified the standards for installation of high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards. (Revised in September 2009)

     

    ①High-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards have been able to be used as an alternative of “guide lights” in every room of eligible small retail stores such as convenience stores, restaurants, offices, etc

     

    ②Guide lights or high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards have been obliged to be installed near the floor of the stores that provide private rooms such as private room video store, karaoke box, internet café, etc.

     

    ③Passage guide lights working for 60 minutes or passage guide lights working for 20 minutes together with high-luminance phosphorescent guidance signboards have had to be installed in large-scale buildings, high-rise buildings, underground shopping centers, etc.

     

      

     

    Fire Services Act enforcement regulations

     

     Defined the phosphorescent evacuation guidance system to be installed to make an evacuation safe and easy when the lighting and guide lights in buildings or facilities open to the general public cannot be used due to  power blackout, etc. (Revised in January 2011)

     Phosphorescent guidance signboards and guide lines, etc. used for SWGS – Phosphorescent type have been positioned as a complementary role as “those that are installed in addition to guide lights and guidance sign boards”.

     

      

     

    Lower limit of luminosity for phosphorescent evacuation guidance signboards

    Illuminance at evacuation route shall need to comply with the following standards which should be achieved after the irradiation for 15 minutes ensuring the conditions of average illuminance of more than 50Lx in the center of the floor and average illuminance of 25Lx at the bottom of the wall. 

     

    Time after excitation stopped.

    Phosphorescence luminosity (mcd/㎡)

    10 minutes

    15 or more

    60 minutes

    2 or more

     

    Lower limit of luminosity for phosphorescent evacuation guidance signboards

    Basic width of phosphorescent evacuation guidance line which shall meet the lower limits of phosphorescence luminosity as above is set up as 100mm.

     

    Line width

    In 10 minutes

    In 60 minutes

    100mm

    15

    2

    50mm

    30 4
    25mm 60 8

    5mm

    300 40

    * In the case where the line width is narrowed, the luminosity must be increased.

     

    JIS Z9096-2012
    “Phosphorescent safety signboards and guidance lines to be installed on the floor”

     

    Specified performance and test methods related to phosphorescent materials as a complimentary role of JIS Z9107, JIS Z9095-2011, and JIS Z9097-2014. (Revised in December 2012)

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